The sloping roof is the primordial form of the house. The shape has remained the same over the years, but the building needs, energetic and aesthetic have suggested over time more new technological solutions: the traditional clay tiles, slate, wood and metal, were added photovoltaic tiles, concrete anti-smog and transparent. The additional installation of photovoltaic panels (coplanar or not) on pitched roofs existing energy is supported by reasons. The goal of sustainability and energy efficiency building clashes with the architecture and the historical memory and landscape of our cities. Air conditioners, boilers, antennas and advertising signs led to a visual impact, so disagreeable as harmful. The view is offended and ecological awareness (or economic) will be put to rest for about twenty years. At this point, the search for solutions and not additional to the system coverage, it is crucial both for new buildings and for the restoration and the recovery of old.
SOLAR ROOF OR A SOLAR CELLS
Photovoltaic tiles replace the previous ones, producing useful energy to the house. In trade there are:
- Tiles with small photovoltaic panels, to be inserted between a tile and the other.
Some leading companies in the insurance sector have patented models of different sizes for energy production average of 75 W. Such solutions appear ingenious and far-sighted because the tile, of greater dimensions than the traditional (but with the same weight), allowing the housing of solar panels that can be replaced in time or subsequently positioned. They are also made from natural clay without addition of sludge or industrial additives, and from aesthetic point of view, represent a combination of tradition and technology. Positive example for the tile which has been patented by a well-known Italian company, is the coverage of the Castle of Acquabella in Tuscany, the ancient home nestled in the forest of Vallombrosa.
- Roof tiles and solar roof tiles are particularly suitable for the construction or replacement of entire roofs. This system, from design and features, it is suitable for all technologies and surfaces. It is a revolutionary system that is inserted inside the tile photovoltaic panel. They are made from a polymer-body tile ASA, a slide cover tecnoplimero PMMA and a PV module. Systems are less productive than before, but practically invisible (kWp are necessary to produce 1 250 tiles, or 18 sqm)
These systems provide a visual continuity (due to the availability of various colors and materials) and complete architectural integration between photovoltaic systems and the system of coverage.
Alternatively, skylights and light tubes, always to get a 'natural illumination environments, the innovative tiles are transparent. Do not turn yellow, they are elegant and resistant to atmospheric agents: the same shape and weight of traditional clay tile, but made of polycarbonate, PVC or glass.
Are commercially available and skylights opaque and transparent, fixed on battens of wood or steel, have the same grooves of the system-tiles pantiles. To these are added the tiles or individual Plexiglas PMMA, durable as the traditional, but that let from 92% to 100% of the light.
The glass tiles are used for both light points for attics that for large roofs. Made of annealed glass, soda lime, clarified low metal oxide, have a variable weight of 40-60 per square meter and allow light transmission of '86%.
The Andalusian Energy Agency has funded a pilot project in a house in Mijas, Spain to produce energy from solar radiation, keeping the formal aspect of the traditional terracotta roofs of the houses. The crystalline surface and wavy produces hot water and heating: below the tiles is arranged a sheet that absorbs sunlight, between which flows a stream of air that reaches considerable temperature (80 ° C). The air passes from one air-to-water heat exchanger and converts the solar energy for home heating (covering 80% of the hot water requirement and 100% for heating).
After several patents useful in the restructuring of pitched roofs (like tiles on a variable pitch), the market came the tile purifying. Thanks to solar energy alone can purify the air from smog with the principle of photocatalysis.
COVERAGE: ARCHETIPO HOUSING AND CONTEMPORARY '
In principle, the roofs were made of bark, leaves and stems, the combination of technique and form has defined several models now etched in the genetic memory of man. The sloped roof, best solution for the reflux of rainwater, represents, in its form of construction, the archetype of coverage and, more generally, the whole house. Over time the roof, protection and delimitation of volumes, has been transformed according to the materials available (or lack thereof) and knowledge of man. Technological experimentation and ethics of architects and engineers can lead to new forms that transcend the consolidated experiences. An example of how the beauty and consistency can dialogue with the past is represented by the intervention of architects Brückner & Brückner in the Centrum Bavaria Bohemia in Schönsee. Widening and upgrading of the old brewery was converted into a cultural center and territorial landmark. The intervention is simple but strong: a transparent volume was added on the solid stone walls and made the cover with flat tiles transparent, customized by a local producer. The cover is reminiscent of the typical elements of the barns Upper Palatinate, with transparent covers to illuminate the attic. The backlight system with fiber optics transforms at night, the building in an 'impressive architecture and attractive: each tile is a pixel lit and colorful form together extraordinary images.
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